Stick welding is where promising welders start learning their craft. It’s the first foray into welding revealed to these people, and for good reason. It’s one of the easiest techniques to learn since it exposes them to the insights and materials welders use daily.
This article will highlight all the key points to familiarize you with things you need to know about stick welding as a beginner’s guide. Let’s get back to basics with stick welding.
Table of Contents
What Is Stick Welding?
Stick welding comes in many names, like shielded metal arc welding, manual metal arc welding, manual electrode welding, and manual arc welding. The term stick welding came from the electrodes that look like sticks you use in the process.
It’s a type of arc welding where the metals melt together using an electric arc. It generates and maintains a constant stream of heat.
The electric arc comes from the contact of the surface area with the electrode. The electrode acts as the anode or the positive part of the circuit that attracts the electrons found on the piece you’re welding. This part is the cathode or the negative part of the circuit.
How Does Stick Welding Work?
Stick welding melts both the electrode and the metal joint with the use of electricity. This process melds the pieces of metal together. The melted electrode from the typically-used direct current (DC) fills the gap to form an almost seamless seal.
When a welder strikes the workpiece with the electric rod or electrode, you create an electric arc. The welder is then dealing with a live current of electricity. A weld pool takes place from the melting of the flux-covered electrode and the surface of the piece.
Slag forms in and over the gap between the metals and gas from the flux. This gas shelters the workpiece from the surrounding elements like the air. This protects the work surface to make the piece as free from debris as possible.
When Is Stick Welding Used?
A man named Charles L. Coffin made a patent about this welding process in 1889. Welders utilize it ever since because of how often you can use it. This technique is prevalent in industries concerning production and repair with the use of various metals.
Stick welding is ideal for thicker ferrous or non-ferrous metals. You can use this method on nickel, iron, copper, and steel. You can weld aluminum too, but other welders suggest otherwise. A metal like it might be too thin. They would likely melt fully before melding with each other.
Many other industries use these viable metals to allow them to utilize stick welding. These include:
- The fabrication of steel
- Overall construction
- Shipbuilding and marine
- Nuclear energy
- Repairs on the field
- Structural welding
- The construction of power plants
- The manufacturing industry
- Aerospace engineering
The Basic Equipment for Stick Welding
Any experienced or inexperienced welder only needs a few things to execute a proper stick weld. Stick welding has the most basic materials in any form of electrical arc welding. Here are the only materials they’ll need:
- Rods or electrodes specifically for stick welding
- Ground clamp
- Rod or electrode holder
- Stick Welder or a power supply with a constant voltage (CV):
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There’s another form of gear that you need. Welding, in general, asks for additional equipment for welders. This is an occupational hazard to consider for people who weld to practice and for a living. Certain materials are crucial because people are using electricity in this case.
The professional welder needs to cover as much of their body as possible. It includes long-sleeved shirts or jackets, gloves, and a good pair of work boots. The most important part is the material. They need to be electrical insulators, like cotton, denim, and leather.
The personal protective equipment (PPE) list for welders is below:
- Fire extinguisher (for emergencies)
- Ventilation fan or a respirator (for areas with improper ventilation)
- Fireproof shoes (like leather boots)
- Non-flammable trousers (like cotton or denim pants)
- Non-flammable long-sleeved shirts (like leather welding jackets or cotton polos)
- Welding gloves (like leather gloves)
- Welding helmet
Advantages and Disadvantages of Stick Welding
No variation of welding is perfect. Some versions are better for a particular project than the rest. There are key aspects of stick welding that you may find a plus or a limitation.
The elements shown below are the advantage and disadvantages you can encounter with stick welding:
- Welding can be done a long way from the ground clamp
- Replacing the rods to accommodate the type of metals is simple
- Things like mud, dirt, rust or paint won’t interfere with the welding area that much
- There’s no need for external shielding gas
- All of the materials you need are cheaper than other types of welding
- The equipment is common in welding so you can easily find them
- A welder can easily use this method in the rain or even during strong winds
- There’s a chance of porosity, uneven patches, and too much spatter
- There’s a need to change out the welding electrodes more often
- Thinner metals are too delicate for this method of welding
- Removing the slag after welding will take too long
- Stick welding requires more experience on the welders part
- The whole process will take more time since it is a slow process
- The possibility of cracking and bad fusion with a lack of practice
Stick welding is the beginning of your journey as a welder. What is stick welding, you say? It shows you the basic techniques and equipment you’ll need to join metals together with an electrode. This process is a type of arc welding. It means it uses electricity to weld metals.
The electric arc starts when the tip of the heated electrode touches the workpiece. The constant current of electricity moves through the electrode and to the work surface. The versatility and compactness of materials make this process the optimal option for construction and repair.
Well-maintained equipment and personal protective gear are essential with welding. They’ll ensure the safety of professionals and novices alike. Make sure to get all of the equipment ready when you’re ready to tackle whatever project you have in mind.